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compression ratio engine valves exhaust port spark plug intake port volume of combustion chamber volume in cylinder above piston right when intake valve closes cylinder piston connecting rod center of crankshaft center of crankpin 40 degress After Bottom Dead Center this is when the intake valve is just closed measurement is different for different makes/models of motorcycles engine valves exhaust port spark plug intake port volume in combustion chamber when piston is at TDC top dead center piston connecting rod center of crankpin center of crankshaft tdc top dead center compression ratio example 11.0:1 or 9.5:1 etc the numerical relationship between the volume in the cylinder at the beginning of the compression phase and the volume in the combustion chamber at tdc how much the mixture is compressed beginning of compression phase defined as 4-stroke right when the intake valve closes 2-stroke piston port right when all ports are covered rotary valve right when all ports are covered